Line Segment Intersection

We want to determine if two line segments, s_1 and s_2, intersect and if they do intersect, the point of intersection. First we analyze the problem. Case five in the list below is difficult to analyze which is why we leave it to the end.

  1. The segments are not parallel (easy)
  2. The segments are parallel and do not intersect (easy)
  3. The segments are collinear and do not intersect (easy)
  4. The segments are collinear and do intersect (easy)
  5. The segments are nearly parallel or nearly collinear (hard)

In this post I handle cases one through four. I leave case five for later posts.

For the problem setup let segment 1 be given by

s_1 = p + t \cdot r where 0 <= t <= 1 and p, r are 2d vectors, similarly let segment 2 be given by

s_2 = q + u \cdot s where 0 <= u <= 1 and q, s are 2d vectors.

This representation of the line segments yields a very natural method for computing their intersection.

Computing cross products is the heart of the algorithm for determining intersections. The two dimensional cross product of p_1 \times p_2 is given by

\textrm{det} \left( \begin{array} {cc} x_1 & x_2 \\ y_1 & y_2\end{array} \right) = x_1y_2 - x_2y_1 = -p_2 \times p_1

If the cross product is zero then the two vectors are collinear that is pointing in either the same direction or in opposite directions.

The two lines intersect when p + t  \cdot r = q + u \cdot s, by crossing both sides with s we get

(p + t \cdot r) \times s = (q + u \cdot s) \times s = q \times s + u \cdot s \times s = q \times s.

From this we solve for t obtaining

t = \frac{(q - p) \times s}{r \times s}.

We can similarly solve for u, obtaining

u = \frac{(q -p) \times r}{r \times s}.

If both t and u are between 0 and 1, then the two line segments intersect and the intersection point is given by p + t \cdot r, where the value of t is the one we solved for. If either t or u are not between 0 and 1 then the line segments do not intersect.

But suppose r \times s = 0, then we can’t solve for t and u. This is because r \times s = 0 means that r and s are parallel which means the two line segments are parallel. Please also note that r \times s = 0 implies that r and s are scalar multiplies of each other. If (p -q) \times r \not= 0 then the segments are parallel but not collinear hence they do not intersect. If (p -q) \times r = 0 then the segments are collinear and we can simply project both of them onto to x-axis and determine if their projections intersect.

For case 5 when r \times s is close to zero the analysis needs to be well thought out and I’ll leave it to future posts.

I’ve posted a sample implementation in Javascript using the html5 canvas at (please note it won’t work in internet explorer since it doesn’t support the canvas element).

Credit Gareth Rees for his post at which is based on the method for 3D line intersection algorithm from the article “Intersection of two lines in three-space” by Ronald Graham, published in Graphics Gems, page 304.

Book Memes

Book memes
* Grab the nearest book.
* Open it to page 56.
* Find the fifth sentence.
* Post the text of the sentence in your journal along with these instructions.
* Don’t dig for your favorite book, the cool book, or the intellectual one: pick the CLOSEST.

“Fibonacci numbers are related to the golden ratio phi and to its conjugate, which are given by the following formulas: phi = (1+sqrt(5))/2, conjugate phi = (1 – sqrt(5))/2”

I’m way too geeky 🙂 most of my books are mathematics and computer science.